Internet of Things (IoT) Describes the networking of physical objects (“things”) in the process of connecting and sharing data via the Internet with other devices and systems, which are built into sensors, software and the like technologies. These gadgets vary from basic household items to advanced industrial instruments.
Fig. 1: Description of the IoT (Source: https://www.designworldonline.com/tips-on-designing-for-the-internet-of-things/)
Due to the confluence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics, machine learning, ubiquitous computing, convenience sensors and on-board systems, things have changed. The Internet of Things is aided by traditional areas such as embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, surveillance systems, automation (including home automation and building automation) and others. The IoT is almost synonymous with articles related to the idea of a ‘smart home’ in the consumer market that support one or more common ecosystems, including devices and appliances (e.g. home appliances). (lighting, thermostats, return-to-home systems and cameras, etc.) and maybe managed by ecosystem-related devices like smartphones and smart speakers. In healthcare systems, IoT can also be used. There are several major concerns about the risks associated with the expansion of IoT, especially in the areas of privacy and security.
2. Cyber-physical systems
Computer computing, networking and integration of physical processes are cyber-physical systems (CPS). Computers and integrated networks monitor and regulate physical processes using feedback loops that impact physical processes and vice versa. Such systems have economic and societal potential far greater than what has been realized, and substantial global spending on technology development.
Fig. 2: Description of the cyber-physical system (Source: https://trendyhuman.com/cyber-physical-system/)
The CPS can interface with real world systems via means of computation and communication as well as commands. The interaction of computer and physical elements leads to improved implementations of the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT, as well as CPS, are intended to enable real-time applications. and who can manage environmental datasets. CPS is a mix between digital controls and the physical world. For example, ABS. (Anti-lock / Anti-skid Braking System) would be a system integrated in an automobile to manage the braking force. This computer system uses sensors to interact with the physical world. These on-board devices are no longer shared autonomously, their data can be collected and processed by communication networks, in particular the Internet and cloud computing. Create a system of systems.
3. Contextual awareness
Context awareness is the ability of a system or system component to collect and adapt behavioral information about its environment at any time. Contextual or contextual computing uses hardware and software to automatically collect and analyze data to guide responses.
Context contains any information related to a certain business, for example, a person, a gadget, or an application. Contextual information therefore falls into a wide variety of categories: time, location, device, identity, user, role, privilege level, activity, task, process, and neighboring devices / users.
- Location: Identify the current location of the device (with user permission) or get notified when you enter or leave a location.
- Time: Identify the current date and time, or notify users when they are in a different time zone from the device itself.
- Activity: Respond to an external sensor incident for the user.
- Environment: Receive information about a device’s sensors, movements, speed, or time zones.
- Collected While Using the Program: The app uses APIs to get its current location, time, or speed.
- Received as relevant context information: at some point, the app wakes up to a place or signal
Fig. 3: Description of context awareness (Source: https://www.afd-techtalk.com/contextual-awareness/)
Here are three examples of context awareness:
- Invasive gaming applications:
A common game uses the felt environment of human beings to adjust the behavior of the game system. By merging the real and virtual components and allowing users to physically interact in the game, individuals can fully participate and have a better experience. game. For example, an autonomous agent reports a global game, which exploits the parameters of human activity and position in smart homes.
- Mobile multimedia applications:
Multimedia mobile devices are sometimes used as an alternative to a standard audio guide in museums and archaeological sites (see for example Tate Modern in London. The location, current user interactions and graph of related items will be used by a gadget to dynamically modify the data provided to users. In some situations, this is coupled with real-time website navigation to direct the user to artifacts or objects that may be of interest based on previous interactions of the user. the user.
- Situational or social awareness applications:
Knowledge of the CSCW context has been used to help individuals work and work more effectively together. Computer Assisted Cooperative Work (CBW). Researchers have developed a wide range of soaps and hardware systems since the early 1990s that can collect contextual information from users (i.e. location, video stream, or status updates). This information is then made public to other users, increasing their situational awareness and allowing them to discover natural ways to interact. The location of the user is the most frequent parameter for acquiring and sharing situational knowledge. For example, each user has a unique identification badge, which can be tracked by a range of aerial infrared sensors, in one of the first prototypes of the Active Badge system. As users walked through a building, a centralized server monitored the location. This information (either in text form or on cards, as was done later) can then be viewed by other users to identify if a user is at their desk and to choose the perfect time to stop the conversation. unforeseen. The location of the PeopleTones, Serendipity has also been disclosed and the group interaction support systems to help users assess whether they are close to friends, shareholders and teammates. These systems are more proactive than Active Badge, which simply displays location information and alerts users when they are close to each other. This lets the user know when there is a possible likelihood of contact and thus increases their chances of using it.
4. Situational awareness
The official definition of AS is divided into three segments: perception of the environment, understanding of the present, and projection of the future state. The research focused on three elements of SA: SA states, SA systems and SA processes. The countries of South Africa relate to real situational awareness. SA systems refer to the distribution and exchange of SAs between components of team systems and between objects in the environment. SA processes relate to updates to the state of the SA and what causes the SA to change from time to time
Fig. 4: Description of Situational awareness (Source: https://www.coolfiresolutions.com/blog/situational-awareness-examples-in-business/)
- Smart city and public service: Investing in situational awareness solutions has the ability to help a wide range of local departments and services. For example, automated warnings and instructions can save lives if issued in response to extreme weather conditions, power outages, health alerts, and other critical circumstances. Smart city sensors can also respond to localized or individual risks, sending notifications based on nearby shots or notifying the nearest hospitals and paramedics in the event of a vehicle collision.
- Citizens can also have more visibility in their daily life. Traffic management is a major challenge for cities, for example, and smart city technologies can help by preventing road closures, accidents and vehicle slowdowns. Likewise, it is possible for public transport passengers to follow their journeys more efficiently, thanks to the rails of buses and subways.
5. Ambient intelligence
Ambient Intelligence (AMI) is the future vision of intelligent computing in which explicit input and output devices are not required; sensors and processors are integrated into everyday gadgets, and the environment is perfectly adapted to the needs and wishes of the customers. AMI systems use contextual information collected through these integrated sensing systems to understand and predict user needs using artificial intelligence (AI) approaches. The technology will be human-centered and user-friendly.
Fig. 5: Description of Ambient intelligence (Source: https://www.infosys.com/insights/ai-automation/ambient-intelligence.html)
Here are two examples of ambient intelligence
- Neura Inc. seeks to create ambience apps that can learn daily routines and analyze their medical needs for seniors living in nursing homes. Seniors no longer need to skip their prescription programs with apps, and as they age they can easily get into their routines.
- Startup Otter.ai also uses the potential of ambient intelligence to create intuitive assistants. The company created voice technology to transcribe speech through gadgets. These are important to complete the conference transcripts. Likewise, users can dig deeper into the application in any material and turn it into important information.
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*** This is a Syndicated Security Bloggers Network blog by Blog IoT – Speranza written by Allen. Read the original post on: https://www.speranzainc.com/what-are-cyber-physical-systems/